From the Arabic language, means wild olive tree.
Laboratory parameter that measures the percentage of free fatty acids contained in a determined sample of olive oil. This parameter is measured by degrees (one percent is a degree), and bears no direct relationship whatsoever with the sensory characteristics of the sample, i.e. it does not refer to acid flavors, nor does it correspond to more or less intensity in taste, as is erroneously associated.
Product that improves the production process and does not remain in the final product.
ALPECHÍN OR JAMILA
Aqueous liquid waste obtained from the processing of olive oil. Includes the water constituting the olive, the added and washing water, and a variable percentage of solids and small amounts of non- extracted virgin oil.
ALPERUJO (OR ALPEORUJO)
Residue from oil extraction in continuous two-phase systems, which has united the vegetable water and pomace. It can be used as biomass (alternative energy source), as composting, and as feedstock for the production of olive pomace oil.
ASSEMBLAGE OR COMBINATION
Art used in the preparation of an extra virgin olive oil whose production has used different varieties of olives, according to determined criteria of the manufacturer, in order to obtain aromas, flavors and similar organoleptic qualities each campaign. Formerly called coupage, a term used in the wine industry.
BEATING, POLE HARVESTING
Traditional system of harvesting olives by means of long sticks used to strike the olive branches, trying not to damage the fruit. Action of detatching the olive and fruits of certain trees through striking and the movement of the pole.
Instrument used to beat the olive paste and free the virgin olive oil.
Discontinuous plant for the elaboration of virgin olive oil that uses the hydraulic press for the separation of solid and liquid components.
CONTINUOUS CENTRIFUGATION SYSTEM
System for the elaboration of virgin olive oil using a centrifugal separator with 2 or 3 outputs for the separation of solid and liquid components.
Natural separation by differences in density, of the oil and alpechín (vegetable water) during the extraction process.
Horizontal centrifuge used in the mill to separate the olive paste in three phases: solid, water, and oil, or in two phases, oil and alperujo.
Material consisting of organic remains with high siliceous constitution, which, suitably ground, is used industrially in filtration processes for its absorbent properties.
Maturation period of the olive during which it turns from green to black, going through various shades. Also applied to the color that olives and other fruits take on when they begin to mature.
Major constituents of oils and fats. They are grouped into several types: Saturated, when they lack double bonds; monounsaturated, with one double bond, mainly oleic, and of high nutritional interest, it is the main fatty in olive oil; and polyunsaturated, with two or more double bonds; these are linoleic or linolenic acids, essential fatty acids, and should be in a healthy diet, though in moderate or low quantities. They are expressed in percentages.
Operation that involves removing the solid waste that may remain in suspension in the oil.
Set of olfactory sensations characteristic of the oil that depends on the variety and comes from healthy, fresh olives, either ripe or unripe. It is perceived directly and/or through the back of the nose.
Fustiness comes from an anaerobic fermentation, a decay that occurs when olives, once collected, await grinding for a certain time. It is an organoleptic defect characteristic of oil extracted from these olives.
Action of picking the olives from the tree by hand, or using combs or other devices, surrounding the crown in a way that the fruit will come off.
Agricultural system that fully utilizes the resources and mechanisms of natural production, minimizing the contributions of external elements to exploitation and ensuring long-term sustainable agriculture. It relies on a rigorous and balanced selection of chemical and biological methods and cultivation techniques to be employed.
INTERPROFESIONAL (FOR OLIVE OIL):
Professional Association of the olive oil sector (professional agricultural organizations, cooperatives, industrial mills, and bottlers and exporters associations) whose objective is to encourage the commercial promotion of this product, facilitate cooperation to control and stabilize the Spanish market, and increase the added value of exports.